Dale and I recently attended the 52nd annual Heckerling Institute on Estate Planning in Orlando, Florida. The passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act in 2017 meant that there was even more to learn and discuss this year. The following are some of the themes and highlights that we found most interesting.
The federal estate tax exemption has substantially increased. The new tax law raised the federal estate tax exemption substantially, but did not repeal the federal estate tax. The new higher exemption (with the chained CPI adjustment) is expected to be $11.18 million per person in 2018.
Gifting may still make sense. For those with federally taxable estates, gifting up to the increased federal exemption amount may make sense. The experts predict that the IRS is unlikely to impose “clawback” if the exemption returns to its 2017 level after 2025 when the increased exemption is scheduled to sunset. Upcoming regulations will likely formally address “clawback”.
Keep your eyes on the sunset. Some portions of the new tax law sunset in 2025. Some do not. The increased federal exemption sunsets at the end of 2025. This illustration from the Tax Policy Center explains the sunset provisions.
Family entities may be targeted by the IRS. In Estate of Powell v. Commissioner, the Tax Court agreed with the IRS and held that all assets in a family limited partnership (FLP) were includible in a decedent’s estate under Section 2036(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code even though the decedent owned only a limited partnership interest because the decedent retained the right to dissolve the FLP in conjunction with other family members. The court also addressed the possibility of “double inclusion” of the assets under Section 2043. Because the IRS may use Powell to attack other family entities in the future, it may be wise to rethink the structure and terms of those entities.
Managing tax basis and federal income tax planning are essential. The increased federal exemption means federal income tax planning is even more important. Clients and advisors must focus on estate planning strategies to maximize tax basis and reduce capital gains taxes by passing high basis assets to future generations.
Attitudes about charitable giving are changing. The new tax law, as well as new attitudes about charitable giving and philanthropy, are changing the landscape of charitable planning. Many younger clients are focused more on charitable impact and less on tax savings. Crowdfunding websites like Kickstarter and Go Fund Me offer new giving opportunities that may appeal to young philanthropic clients more than traditional strategies.
Look at Roth conversions in a new light. Natalie Choate discussed some interesting opportunities for planning with retirement accounts, including an in depth discussion of the rules regarding Roth conversions and opportunities for income and estate tax planning with Roth conversions. Importantly, the new tax law eliminated the opportunity to “recharacterize” (or undo) a Roth conversion.